I developed this lecture for Shepherd University MBA and presented it February 11th, 2015
Out of curiosity, I took this Quiz and answered questions as if I were another member of my family, someone I thought was Narcissistic. The Quiz results certainly suggests I was right. Anyone like this in your family?
Narcissistic Personality Quiz
Your Total: 30
Between 12 and 15 is average.
Celebrities often score closer to 18.
Narcissists score over 20.
Because you scored 18 or higher, you may want to check out the symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder.
Here’s how you rated on the seven component traits of narcissism:
|Narcissistic Trait||Strength of Trait|
Below you will find a brief interpretation of each narcissism trait and what your score relative to that trait may indicate about you.
Authority refers to a person’s leadership skills and power. People who score higher on authority like to be in charge and gain power, often for power’s sake alone. You scored particularly high in authority, suggesting you see yourself as a leader or as someone who values power.
This trait refers to how self-sufficient a person is, that is, how much you rely on others versus your own abilities to meet your needs in life. You scored particularly high in self-sufficiency, suggesting you are highly self sufficient.
This trait refers to whether a person feels they are more superior than those around them. You scored particularly high in superiority, suggesting you feel you are superior to most others.
This trait refers to a person’s need to be the center of attention, and willingness to ensure they are the center of attention (even at the expense of others’ needs).
This trait refers to how willing you are to exploit others in order to meet your own needs or goals. You scored particularly high in exploitativeness, suggesting you don’t mind exploiting others in order to meet your own needs or goals.
This trait refers to a person’s vanity, or their belief in one’s own superior abilities and attractiveness compared to others.
This trait refers to the expectation and amount of entitlement a person has in their lives, that is, unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with one’s expectations. People who score higher on this trait generally have a greater expectation of entitlement, while those who score lower expect little from others or life.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
By Psych Central Staff
Narcissistic Personality Disorder is characterized by a long-standing pattern of grandiosity (either in fantasy or actual behavior), an overwhelming need for admiration, and usually a complete lack of empathy toward others. People with this disorder often believe they are of primary importance in everybody’s life or to anyone they meet. While this pattern of behavior may be appropriate for a king in 16th Century England, it is generally considered inappropriate for most ordinary people today.
People with narcissistic personality disorder often display snobbish, disdainful, or patronizing attitudes. For example, an individual with this disorder may complain about a clumsy waiter’s “rudeness” or “stupidity” or conclude a medical evaluation with a condescending evaluation of the physician.
In laypeople terms, someone with this disorder may be described simply as a “narcissist” or as someone with “narcissism.” Both of these terms generally refer to someone with narcissistic personality disorder.
Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
In order for a person to be diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) they must meet five or more of the following symptoms:
- Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements)
- Is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love
- Believes that he or she is “special” and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions)
- Requires excessive admiration
- Has a very strong sense of entitlement, e.g., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations
- Is exploitative of others, e.g., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends
- Lacks empathy, e.g., is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others
- Is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her
- Regularly shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes
As with all personality disorders, the person must be at least 18 years old before they can be diagnosed with it.
Narcissistic personality disorder is more prevalent in males than females, and is thought to occur in less than 1 percent in the general population.
Like most personality disorders, narcissistic personality disorder typically will decrease in intensity with age, with many people experiencing few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s.
How is Narcissistic Personality Disorder Diagnosed?
Personality disorders such as narcissistic personality disorder are typically diagnosed by a trained mental health professional, such as a psychologist or psychiatrist. Family physicians and general practitioners are generally not trained or well-equipped to make this type of psychological diagnosis. So while you can initially consult a family physician about this problem, they should refer you to a mental health professional for diagnosis and treatment. There are no laboratory, blood or genetic tests that are used to diagnose personality disorder.
Many people with narcissistic personality disorder don’t seek out treatment. People with personality disorders, in general, do not often seek out treatment until the disorder starts to significantly interfere or otherwise impact a person’s life. This most often happens when a person’s coping resources are stretched too thin to deal with stress or other life events.
A diagnosis for narcissistic personality disorder is made by a mental health professional comparing your symptoms and life history with those listed here. They will make a determination whether your symptoms meet the criteria necessary for a personality disorder diagnosis.
Causes of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Researchers today don’t know what causes narcissistic personality disorder. There are many theories, however, about the possible causes of narcissistic personality disorder. Most professionals subscribe to a biopsychosocial model of causation — that is, the causes of are likely due to biological and genetic factors, social factors (such as how a person interacts in their early development with their family and friends and other children), and psychological factors (the individual’s personality and temperament, shaped by their environment and learned coping skills to deal with stress). This suggests that no single factor is responsible — rather, it is the complex and likely intertwined nature of all three factors that are important. If a person has this personality disorder, research suggests that there is a slightly increased risk for this disorder to be “passed down” to their children.
Treatment of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Treatment of narcissistic personality disorder typically involves long-term psychotherapy with a therapist that has experience in treating this kind of personality disorder. Medications may also be prescribed to help with specific troubling and debilitating symptoms. For more information about treatment, please see narcissistic personality disorder treatment.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Resources
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder Treatment
By Psych Central Staff
Table of Contents
- Medical Treatment
- Psychosocial Treatment
The hospitalization of patients with severe Narcissistic Personality occurs frequently. For some, such as those who are quite impulsive or self-destructive, or who have poor reality-testing, this is the result of Axis I symptoms which are overlaid upon the personality disorder. Hospitalizations should be brief, and the treatment specific to the particular symptom involved.
Another group of patients for whom hospitalization is indicated, provided long-term residential treatment is available, are those who have poor motivation for outpatient treatment, fragile object relationships, chronic destructive acting out, and chaotic life-styles. An inpatient program can offer an intensive milieu which includes individual psychotherapy, family involvement, and a specialized residential environment. The structure is physically and emotionally secure enough to sustain the patient with severe ego weakness throughout the course of expressive, conflict-solving psychotherapy.
Small staff-patient groups within the wards, as well as large community meetings, at which feelings are shared and patients’ comments taken seriously by staff, and constructive work assignments, recreational activities, and opportunities to sublimate painfully conflictual impulses make the hospital a “holding” environment rather than merely a containing one. The ultimate goals are of effecting a better integrated internal world, more cohesive and modulated self-object representation, and a self-concept less vulnerable to narcissistic injury.
Narcissistic patients try to sustain an image of perfection and personal invincibility for themselves and attempt to project that impression to others as well. Physical illness may shatter this illusion, and a patient may lose the feeling of safety inherent in a cohesive sense of self. This loss precipitates a panicky sensation that “my world is falling to pieces,” and the patient feels a sense of personal fragmentation.
The histrionic patient’s idealization of the physician stands in contrast to the narcissistic patient’s frequent contemptuous disregard for the physician, who is denigrated in a defensive effort to maintain a sense of superiority and mastery over illness. Only the most senior physician in a prestigious institution is deemed worthy of respect as the frightened patient seeks an external reflection of his or her own fragile grandeur in the doctor. More junior members of the health care team may be the targets of derision as the patient seeks to establish hierarchical dominance in order to counter the shame and fear triggered by illness.
Health care professionals must convey a feeling of respect and acknowledge the patient’s sense of self-importance so that the patient can reestablish a coherent sense of self, but they must at the same time avoid reinforcing either pathologic grandiosity (which may contribute to denial of illness) or weakness (which frightens the patient). An initial approach of support followed by step-by-step confrontation of the patient’s vulnerabilities may enable the patient to deal with the implications of illness with feelings of greater subjective strength. The increased self-confidence may reduce the patient’s need to attack the health care team in a misguided effort at psychologic self-preservation and eases the pressure to provide perfect care, since the patient’s antagonistic feeling of entitlement (defined by DSM-III as an “expectation of special favors without assuming reciprocal responsibilities”) is reduced.
Many of the treatment principles and approaches discussed for this disorder apply as well to Borderline Personality Disorder.
The individual with narcissistic and related personality disorders is likely to present with Axis I symptoms and disorders at various times in his or her life. These should be treated as described elsewhere. Caution should be observed, however, not to overdiagnose psychotic decompensation as Schizophrenia unless all DSM-III criteria are apparent. The same caveat applies to the pharmacologic treatment of depressive symptoms in the absence of clinical signs of Major Affective Disorder. When treating presenting symptoms and Axis I disorders in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder and other similar conditions, attention should be paid to the consequences of removing symptoms in a patient whose underlying character is primitive and or fragile.
Some clinicians, suggest that the grandiosity and tendency to idealize and devalue should be interpreted as defensive maneuvers when aspects of early conflictual relationships are played out in adult life. Other clinicians, posit that the emergence of the patient’s grandiosity and tendency to idealize the therapist should initially be viewed supportively. To help the individual develop stronger self-esteem regulation, the therapist then gradually points out the realistic limitations of patient and therapist alike while also offering an empathic ambience to cushion patients in their efforts to accept and integrate these experiences. Unfortunately, much research will be required to validate the description and course of narcissistic personality disorder before further research can answer which techniques bring about a better response to treatment.
Most psychiatrists will, as a practical matter, treat most of their severely narcissistic patients for symptoms related to crises and relatively external Axis I diagnoses, rather than in an effort to address the personality disorder itself. The therapist must be aware of the importance of narcissism to the contiguity of the patient’s psyche, refrain from confronting the need for self-aggrandizement, and help the patient use his or her narcissistic characteristics to reconstitute an intact self-image. Positive transference and therapeutic alliance should not be relied upon, since the patient may not be able to acknowledge the real humanness of the therapist but may have to see him/her as either superhuman or devalued.
Those patients who do not terminate treatment after symptom relief has been obtained may wish help for some of the problems related to their personality disorder, such as interpersonal difficulties or depression. The therapist must have a good understanding of the principles of the narcissistic personality style, both for interpretation to the patient and for use in combating countertransference. Goals for ordinary psychotherapy should not be too great, since the source of these patients’ difficulties lies deep in pathological development.
The goals are to help the patient develop a healthy individuality (rather than a resilient narcissism) so that he or she can acknowledge others as separate persons, and to decrease the need for self-defeating coping mechanisms. The first step toward developing a working alliance is empathy with the surprise and hurt that the patient experiences as a result of confrontations within the group. The external structuring group therapy provides can control destructive behavior in spite of ego weakness. In groups, the therapist is less authoritative (and less threatening to the patient’s grandiosity); intensity of emotional experience is lessened; and regression is more controlled, creating a better setting for confrontation and clarification.
Outpatient analytic-expressive group therapy requires a concomitant individual relationship for most patients, which should be somewhat supportive. The need for this additional support, the likelihood of the patient’s leaving the group at the first sign of psychic insult, and proneness to disorganized thinking are all found more often in the Borderline patient. The patient with a Narcissistic Personality Disorder does not appear so vulnerable to separation anxieties as the Borderline patient, but is instead involved in issues centered around maintaining a sense of self-worth
Results of your
Short Personality Quiz
Here is how you rated on each of the Big 5 Personality traits — extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability and openness to experiences.
|Emotional Stability: 5.50|
|Openness to Experiences: 6.00|
Below you will find a brief interpretation of each personality trait and what your score relative to that trait may indicate about you. Because this is such a brief quiz, however, please keep in mind that the below discussion may not be entirely accurate or completely apply to you. These “Big 5” personality traits are broad traits, and a brief personality test such as this one cannot provide a detailed interpretation of your scores.
You appear to be more extraverted than most people. Extraversion is characterized by positive emotions, surgency, and the tendency to seek out stimulation and the company of others. The trait is marked by pronounced engagement with the external world and experiencing more positive feelings than many others. Extraverts enjoy being with people, and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals who are likely to say “Yes” to new opportunities. In social groups they like to talk and tend to be more assertive than others.
You appear to hold a generally neutral view of humanity and others — you appear to be somewhat compassionate and cooperative, but also at times suspicious about other people’s motivations. While you see the value of getting along with others, you’ll speak your mind when you feel like it. You probably hope that most people are honest, but are pragmatic enough to realize many are not.
You have scored quite high in conscientiousness, suggesting you greatly value self-discipline, acting dutifully, and aiming for achievement. You likely have a strong preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. You seek to avoid trouble and achieve high levels of success through purposeful planning and persistence. You are also positively regarded by others as intelligent and reliable. Sometimes, however, others may see you as a compulsive perfectionist or a workaholic.
You have scored higher than many people in emotional stability, suggesting that you are less easily upset and are less emotionally reactive to stressful or painful situations or people. People who score higher on this trait tend to be calm, emotionally stable, and free from persistent negative feelings.
Openness to Experiences
You have scored quite high on your openness to experiences. This suggests a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience. The trait distinguishes imaginative people from down-to-earth, conventional people. People who are open to experience are intellectually curious, appreciative of art, and sensitive to beauty. They tend to be more creative and more aware of their feelings, and are more likely to hold unconventional beliefs.
Results of your
How Do Others Perceive You? Quiz
You scored a total of 47
The Lively Center of Attention
Others see you as fresh, lively, charming, amusing, practical, and always interesting; someone who’s constantly in the center of attention, but sufficiently well-balanced not to let it go to their head. They also see you as kind, considerate, and understanding; someone who’ll always cheer them up and help them out.
Place this graphic on your Web site:
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S C O R I N G K E Y
Nobody, not even a quiz like this, can tell you conclusively whether this is truly how your friends see you or not. In fact, although this quiz is attributed to Oprah’s Dr. Phil, we have no way of knowing whether it has any basis in empirical research or not. So you should take these results as something for fun and not too seriously. (Supposedly Dr. Phil scored a 55 and Oprah scored a 38.)
You may also wish to browse our other online quizzes that are available.
Presented at Shepherd University Graduate School of Business October 3rd, 2012
¨Ethics– A concept where “how you behave” is based on human logic (right vs wrong), human reason (rationality) and human intuition (trusting your gut reaction).
- Business Ethics And What It Means For Your Business (clurradonald.com)
- Business Ethics (slideshare.net)
- Entrepreneurs tipped on ethics (times.co.zm)
- Ethics in Business, Part II (accountingfiles.wordpress.com)
- Author to discuss virtuous entrepreneur (wvgazette.com)
- Chapter 5 of a Case Study: Business Leadership of Enron (ivythesis.typepad.com)
- Can Business Schools Teach Ethics? (businessethicsblog.com)
- The importance of Ethics for Small Business (arinobe.com)
- Business assignment (slideshare.net)
- Business Ethics and Social Responsibility (tboyanton2.wordpress.com)